14 Jul 2020

The green areas of Yerevan are disappearing

Today in Yerevan the green areas are decreasing and the high-rise buildings are increasing at the expense of green areas. If in other countries the construction of buildings seems to be a prerequisite for the of adjacent landscapes, in our country this condition is also ignored. We are reducing green areas on the one way, and making risky emissions on the other way. All this does not only disrupt the ecosystem of the city, but also causes serious damage to human health.

To keep human brain, blood, and tissues bioactivity, the blood supplies oxygen to the organs and tissues, while polluting the environment, filling the air with transport emissions, and various gas mixtures, we just breathe that air, which easily penetrates our body and lungs.

The construction in the city often does not take into account the fact that overloading earth's crust, we increase the tectonic risks. Unfortunately, there have been many cases of massive logging recently. It is important to realize that from new trees will take at least tens of years to reach the efficiency given by tall trees.

The importance of trees and green areas for our health seems that to be neglected by the citizens. It is strange, when people don’t have a basic knowledge about such an important and unique process, thanks to which we all have an opportunity to live. Simply, this is the process of converting water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and glucose using the light of the sun.

6СО2 + 6Н2О + Qсвета → С6Н12О6 + 6О2

Life on the planet depends on photosynthesis. In order to understand its importance, I suggest a brief reference to the mechanism of these living organisms, due to which they clean the air from dust and dirt.

Each plant has many small holes called stomata through which ventilation takes place․ Most plant stomatas open in the morning, offended in the afternoon, and close in the evening.With open stomatas, carbon dioxide penetrates the plant's internal tissues, and the oxygen, which formed during photosynthesis and water vapor passes into the atmosphere.

The surface of the leaf can absorb 3–4 liters of CO2 from the air in one hour and turn off O2 as well. Due to the processes of photosynthesis and respiration, maintain the balance of oxygen-carbon dioxide in the air, and through evaporation participate in the water cycle on earth.The vital activity of organisms is provided by the balanced of oxygen to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which is why forests are called the lungs of the planet.

Now let's understand how much green area should be per capita. According to international standards, in general, the area per capita should be 21 square meters. It is obvious that the green areas in Yerevan are not enough to provide clean air compared to the population

Today, according to the index of the municipality, 842 hectares, in other words, 8․420․000 m2 of green space per capita, 7.8 m2 area. In such conditions, the size of green areas should not be 842 hectares, as indicated in the plan of the municipality, but more, because in case of pollution of such size, the demand for clean air is high, especially in such a large volume of industry, construction conditions.

Plants are not only a source of oxygen, but also contribute to the formation of climate, regulate soil and water regime. It is interesting that the flora of the Caucasus includes about 6000 species of flowering plants, more than half of which grow in Armenia (3500 species).

Reduced green areas, climate change make the climate of the city of Yerevan drier, and the amount of precipitation is decreasing. During the 20th century, the situation changed։ the more regulated irrigation system allows to expand the green areas, to establish gardens and parks worthy of the capital, which in turn helps to reduce the concentration of dust in the city, eliminates dusty winds, giving passers not only fresh air, but also aesthetic pleasure.

The city cannot survive without "lungs". In previous years, the first sandstorm of recent decades was recorded in Yerevan in the summer։ In August, with tropical currents, a dense concentration of dust penetrated the republic, and there were simply no trees or gardens on the way. Already, according to Armecommonitoring, the average annual dust concentration in Yerevan is 1.6-1.9 times higher than the allowable limit.

In 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) summed up a large number of studies on the impact of green space on human health. The final report noted that Tokyo residents living near green spaces, regardless of their socio-economic status, live longer. Residents of cities with a view of green and open areas are better able to withstand stress in the United States. The WHO report proves, that dozens of examples that green spaces are are required for a healthy city. One thing is clear, there are not enough green areas in Yerevan, there is a problem of protecting the green zone․

 In order to correct the situation in this regard, it should be noted that the green areas of the capital should be expanded to 21 m2 per capita. It is necessary to plant trees in different parts of the city, to pay special attention to the trees planted, to plant more densely, and three layers of greenery should be done next to the constructions in the former forested areas.

Today, even the squares for children are almost treeless, and from sandy playgrounds the dust spreads in the air and passes to the lungs. It is necessary to pay special attention to these squares, to plant trees, to provide irrigation system and finally to protect the ecosystem of the capital Yerevan.

We must take care of every tree and fight for it. In the end, destroying trees, destroying animals, we will also disappear… 

08 Jul 2020

The impact of pesticides on biodiversity։ Part 3

It is necessary to pay attention to the fauna after the chemical processing of the areas. Both chemically treated areas and surrounding infrastructure should be studied․ Fluctuations in the number of mammals and birds can be as indicators to understand the effects of pesticides on animals. All findings of bird carcasses should be analyzed at the nearest community or regional veterinary and bacteriological laboratory. Animals, which was fed or caught from chemically  areas should be studied too. Only the final results of the laboratory examination can be  to be exact evidence of animal poisoning.

It is very important in forestry and hunting farms, the implementation of biotechnological measures, first of all, the removal of the salt layer, as well as the organization of feeding of animals and birds. It will help the animals not only in unfavorable seasons, but also to protect them from fertilizers, pesticides, sprayed grain piles (Ливчак И.Ф., Воронов Ю.В., Стрелков Е.В. Охрана окружающей среды. – М.: Колос, 1995).

It should be noted that it is impossible save the crop  only by chemical treatment of, while the cultivated areas are massively populated with rodents. In just 2-3 months, rodents recover their numbers and replenish the cultivated areas. Especially dangerous are the deaths of small birds and gray partridge in the fight against harmful insects.

It is known that in the Czech Republic, where a large number of gray partridge were bred, the yield of beets and other agricultural products increased significantly (Егоренков Л.И. Основы экологической безопасности. – М 1994.)․

The use of pesticides around the world can be as an alarm for their use in agriculture in Armenia. We need to reduce, and in some cases simply forbid the use of pesticides, and increase the use of agro-technical, biological, mechanical and other means of control.

The fight against rodents should be carried out by other means without harming the beneficial animals․ It is necessary to systematically destroy rodents from their habitats during unfavorable unfavorable seasons, it means that, during the period of their declining numbers.

The mass spread of  rodents should not be allowed when the fight against them becomes practically impossible.

It is necessary to ban the means of  fighting against harmfull insects, which can be cause of the death a number of wild animals and birds. The indifference of farmers, the Ministry of Environment, and the Hunting Union to the wild animals and birds seems strange. Why doesn't anyone pay attention to the mass decline of animals?

To prevent all of this, it is necessary to include in the obligations of the Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture the drafting of acts in all cases when animals and birds die, and to take all possible measures to prevent the mass poisoning of birds and wild animals.

                                                                                         

                                                                                          Author: S. Adamyan

 

List of references

Каган Ю.С. Токцикология фосфорорганических пестицидов и гигиена труда при их использовании. М. Медгиз 1963. 324с.

Ливчак И.Ф., Воронов Ю.В., Стрелков Е.В. Охрана окружающей среды. – М.: Колос, 1995.

Егоренков Л.И. Основы экологической безопасности. – М.: 1994.

Скокова Н.Н., Лобанов В.А. (1974): Птицы и пестициды. - Мат-лы 6 Всес. орнитол. конф.  М.: МГУ. 2: 358-359.

M.S.Adamian, Daniel Klem, Jr «Handbook of the birds of Armenia» 1999 USA California AUA 

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